At the end of the Last Glacial Maximum, a global warming trend began which started a deep and continuing modification of landscapes and ecosystems: the rise of sea levels flooded vast portions of territory, dense forest gradually recovered great parts of Western Europe, the large mammals adapted to cold climates migrateed northwards and were replaced by red deer, roe deer and wild boar (among others). Within human societies, the changeswere also quite radical. For a few millennia they remained organized in small, relatively mobile, groups living on hunting, fishing and gathering; this was the period of the Mesolithic, dated between approximately 10000 and 5500 years BC. These five millennia of the Mesolithic show several evolutionary steps of these human societies. We divide it into two stages, the First and the Second Mesolithic. The articulation of these remains delicate to understand but overall the pattern constitutes a very large-scale phenomenon, affecting all the Western Europe as well as North Africa. While these Mesolithic societies developed in Western Europe, the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea witnessed one of the major transformations in the history of the Humanity: that of the appearance of a settled way of life based on farming and herding, in brief the appearance of the Neolithic. From the 8th millennium BC, we can see the expansion to the west of this new mode of life and production which reached the Atlantic shores some three millennia later. This irreversible evolution sounds the knell (for Europe) of the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic way of life. This “Neolithization” process implies complex processes mixing movements of groups of Neolithic farmers and the acculturation of indigenous hunter-gatherer Mesolithic groups. This period between the 8th and 5th millennia thus sees major evolution of human societies, with these two shifts ‒ the appearance of the Second Mesolithic and the Neolithic. For the archaeologist, the passage from the First to the Second Mesolithic is particularly visible in stone tool production. The disconnection in the manufacturing processes between the First and Second Mesolithic is such that it is extremely difficult to imagine transition processes between them. More still, we were able to show during a previous collective work that the appearance of these industries with wide blades and trapezes followed a south-north distribution, the result, probably at first, of movement of populations along the shores of the Mediterranean, before it entails processes of transmission of know-how and transfer of knowledge. We postulated in that work the North African origin of this phenomenon, but were unable to demonstrate it due to the lack of available reliable data in this geographical area. While the traditional hypotheses suggest an eastern origin (in Greece in particular, even in Crimea for certain authors) of these industries, but without really objective proof, the scenario of a possible influence from North Africa, implying at least in a first phase movement of population as an hypothesis, is a major difference from these scenarios. The hypothesis of an African origin of industries with wide blades and trapezes cannot be ignored any more, and deserves to be seriously revised. Beyond the technical sphere of production of stone tools, there are intriguing similarities between the artistic productions of North Africa and the art of the Spanish East. These African impacts increase over time because they are also attested in the Early Neolithic of the Iberian Peninsula and have been used to construct the identity of this Early Neolithic, both in Spain and in Portugal. However, in those regions as well, while these contacts are attested by numerous and clear data, certain researchers minimize at any price the possible influence of prehistoric North African cultures on Western Europe. An objective re-examination of these interactions over the long duration examined here (Second Mesolithic to Early Neolithic), are imperative today to try to break with paradigms established during the post-colonial era. The MeNeMOIA project thus aims at estimating the importance of North African impacts on European societies of recent Prehistory (Second Mesolithic, Early Neolithic), a scenario breaking with the traditional plans which, since the decolonization, recognize only European movements in east-west directions and ignore completely those going from the south to north (or north-south) on both sides of the western basin of the Mediterranean.